What are mammograms?
Mammograms are a type of X-ray imaging used to screen for and diagnose breast cancer. They involve compressing the breast tissue between two plates and taking a picture to produce an image of the breast. Mammograms can detect changes in breast tissue, such as lumps, calcifications, or other abnormalities, that may indicate the presence of cancer or other conditions.
Aside from skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer that affects people assigned female at birth and represents 14% of all new cancer diagnoses in the United States. While breast cancer treatment therapies continue to improve and have contributed to a reduction in cancer-related deaths, early diagnosis through screening mammograms has a greater overall impact on survival rates.
Most findings in mammograms are benign, or noncancerous. In fact, fewer than 1 in 10 people who need additional tests after a mammogram have cancer. .
Mammograms are recommended for women over the age of 40, or for those with a higher risk of developing breast cancer due to family history or other factors. Regular mammograms can help detect breast cancer early, when it is more treatable. However, mammograms are not foolproof and may miss some breast cancers or give false positives, so additional tests may be needed if a mammogram detects an abnormality.
Why are mammograms important for women's health?
Mammograms are important for women's health because they can detect breast cancer early, when it is more treatable. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women, and early detection can make a big difference in the outcome of treatment.
Regular mammograms can help detect breast cancer before it causes symptoms, such as a lump or a change in the appearance of the breast. Early detection can increase the likelihood of successful treatment and can also help women avoid more extensive treatments, such as chemotherapy or mastectomy.
Mammograms are also important because they can detect other breast conditions, such as cysts or calcifications, which may not be cancerous but still require monitoring or treatment.
Overall, mammograms are an important tool for women's health, and women should talk to their healthcare providers about when and how often they should have a mammogram based on their age, risk factors, and personal health history.
When should you get a mammogram?
The American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Society of Breast Imaging (SBI) recommend that women get yearly mammograms starting at age 40. The Johns Hopkins Radiology and Radiological Science breast imaging section supports the ACR and SBI recommendation and encourage women to discuss their individual screening options with their doctor. .
The American Cancer Society recommends that women at average risk of breast cancer should start getting annual mammograms at age 45, and then switch to getting mammograms every other year at age 55, or continue yearly screening based on individual risk factors and preferences.
Women who are at higher risk of breast cancer, such as those with a family history of the disease or those with a genetic mutation like BRCA, may need to start mammography screening at an earlier age and/or have more frequent screening. In such cases, a healthcare provider may recommend additional screening tests, such as breast MRI or ultrasound, in addition to mammograms.
It's important for women to talk to their healthcare providers about when to start getting mammograms and how often they should be screened, as recommendations may vary depending on individual risk factors and personal health history. Women should also be aware of any changes in their breasts and report any concerns to their healthcare provider, even if they're not yet due for their next mammogram.
What does a mammogram detect?
A mammogram can detect various breast conditions, including:
- Breast cancer: A mammogram can detect breast cancer at an early stage, even before a lump can be felt.
- Calcifications: Calcium deposits in the breast tissue, known as calcifications, can be seen on a mammogram and may indicate an early stage of breast cancer.
- Cysts: Fluid-filled sacs in the breast tissue can be seen on a mammogram.
- Fibroadenomas: Noncancerous lumps in the breast tissue can be seen on a mammogram.
- Changes in breast tissue density: A mammogram can detect changes in breast tissue density, which may indicate an increased risk of breast cancer.
It's important to note that a mammogram is not 100% accurate and may miss some cancers or other abnormalities, particularly in women with dense breast tissue. Women should talk to their healthcare provider about their individual risk factors and when to start getting mammograms.
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How long does a mammogram take?
A mammogram typically takes about 20 to 30 minutes, although the actual time may vary depending on the facility and the individual woman's breast size and anatomy. The mammogram itself only takes a few seconds per image, but there may be some wait time in between images or if additional images are needed.
During the mammogram, the woman will be asked to undress from the waist up and wear a gown. The technologist will then position her breast on a special platform and compress it between two plates to spread out the tissue and get a clear image. The compression may feel uncomfortable or even painful for some women, but it is necessary to obtain a high-quality image.
After the mammogram is complete, the technologist will review the images to ensure that they are of sufficient quality and may ask the woman to wait briefly while additional images are taken if needed.
Overall, while a mammogram may not be the most comfortable experience, it is a relatively quick and important screening test that can detect breast cancer early and save lives.
How often should you get a mammogram?
The frequency of mammogram screening depends on an individual's age, personal and family medical history, and other risk factors. The American Cancer Society recommends the following general guidelines for mammogram screening:
- Women aged 40-44 can start getting mammograms yearly if they wish to do so.
- Women aged 45-54 should get mammograms every year.
- Women aged 55 and older should transition to getting mammograms every two years, or can choose to continue yearly screening if they prefer.
However, it is important to note that some women may need to start getting mammograms earlier or may need more frequent screening if they have certain risk factors, such as a family history of breast cancer or a genetic mutation. Women should discuss their individual risk factors with their healthcare provider to determine when to start and how often to get mammogram screenings.
Additionally, it's important for women to be aware of any changes in their breasts and to report any concerns to their healthcare provider, even if they're not yet due for their next mammogram.
How to prepare for a mammogram?
To prepare for a mammogram, here are some general guidelines that women can follow:
- Schedule the mammogram for a time when the breasts are least likely to be tender. This is usually a week after the menstrual period ends.
- Do not apply any deodorant, perfume, powder, or cream under the arms or on the breasts on the day of the mammogram. These products can interfere with the quality of the mammogram image.
- Wear a two-piece outfit on the day of the mammogram, as the woman will need to undress from the waist up.
- Inform the technologist if there is any possibility of pregnancy.
- Inform the facility of any breast surgeries, breast implants, or other breast procedures before the mammogram.
- Bring any prior mammogram images or reports to the appointment if they were not performed at the same facility.
- Discuss any concerns or questions with the healthcare provider before the mammogram.
It is important to note that every facility may have specific instructions for preparing for a mammogram, so women should follow the instructions provided by the facility where they are having the mammogram.
How is a mammogram done?
Here's what to expect during a mammogram:
- The woman will be asked to undress from the waist up and wear a gown.
- The technologist will position the woman's breast on a special platform and gently compress it with a paddle to spread out the breast tissue and obtain a clear image. The compression may feel uncomfortable or even painful for some women, but it is necessary to obtain a high-quality image.
- The technologist will take two X-ray images of each breast, one from above and one from the side. The woman will need to hold her breath for a few seconds while the images are taken.
- The technologist will review the images to ensure that they are of sufficient quality. If additional images are needed, the woman may need to wait briefly while the technologist takes more pictures.
- The entire process usually takes about 20-30 minutes.
After the mammogram, the images will be reviewed by a radiologist who will interpret the results and send them to the woman's healthcare provider. If any abnormalities are detected, the healthcare provider may recommend additional tests or procedures, such as a diagnostic mammogram, ultrasound, or biopsy, to determine if cancer or another breast condition is present.
It's important for women to talk to their healthcare providers about their individual risk factors and when to start getting mammograms. Early detection is key in the successful treatment of breast cancer, so regular mammogram screenings are an important part of women's health.
What not to do before a mammogram?
To ensure the best possible mammogram results, it's important to follow some guidelines and avoid certain activities before the exam. Here are some things to avoid before a mammogram:
- Do not use deodorant, antiperspirant, lotion, powder, or perfume on the underarms or breasts, as they can interfere with the quality of the mammogram image.
- Do not schedule the mammogram during or just before the menstrual period, as the breasts may be more tender or swollen during this time.
- Do not consume caffeine before the mammogram, as it can cause breast tenderness and discomfort.
- Do not wear clothing with metal objects, such as underwire bras, jewelry, or clothing with metal buttons or zippers, as they can interfere with the mammogram image.
- Do not perform any strenuous exercise or physical activity before the mammogram, as it can cause breast tenderness and discomfort.
- Do not undergo any breast procedures, such as a biopsy or surgery, before the mammogram without informing the healthcare provider.
It's important to follow any specific instructions provided by the mammography facility regarding preparation for the mammogram. If there are any concerns or questions, women should talk to their healthcare provider or the mammography facility staff.
5 things to know before your next mammogram:
1. It’s normal to feel nervous about a mammogram, but you should still go.
2. Bring your medical history with you for the best care.
3. Go au naturel the day of your test.
4. Team up with your technologist.
5. With annual screening mammograms, don’t let concerns about radiation dissuade you. .
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How long does it take to get mammogram results?
The time it takes to get mammogram results can vary depending on the facility and the type of mammogram performed. In general, most women can expect to receive their results within 1-2 weeks. However, if additional imaging or testing is needed, it may take longer to receive the results. In some cases, the healthcare provider may provide the results during a follow-up appointment, while in other cases, the results may be sent by mail or over the phone.
It's important to keep in mind that if there is any concern about the mammogram results, the healthcare provider will likely recommend additional tests or procedures, such as a diagnostic mammogram, ultrasound, or biopsy, to determine if cancer or another breast condition is present. Women should follow up with their healthcare provider if they have not received their results within the expected timeframe or if they have any concerns about the results.
Where can I get a mammogram?
Mammograms can be obtained at various healthcare facilities, including:
- Hospitals: Many hospitals have imaging departments that offer mammograms.
- Imaging centers: Standalone imaging centers also provide mammogram services.
- Mobile mammography units: Some healthcare organizations have mobile mammography units that travel to different locations to provide mammogram services.
- Doctor's offices: Some primary care physicians and OB/GYNs offer mammogram services or can refer patients to a mammography facility.
- Breast health centers: Some healthcare organizations have specialized breast health centers that offer mammograms, as well as other breast health services such as breast cancer screenings, diagnosis, and treatment.
Women can check with their healthcare provider or insurance company to find a mammography facility in their area that is covered by their insurance. Many facilities require an appointment for a mammogram, so it's important to call ahead to schedule a time that works best for the individual's schedule.
How much does a mammogram cost without insurance?
The cost of a mammogram without insurance can vary depending on the facility and the type of mammogram performed. According to the National Cancer Institute, the average cost of a mammogram without insurance is around $100-$250. However, this cost can be higher or lower depending on the location and other factors.
It's important to note that many healthcare facilities offer financial assistance or payment plans for individuals who do not have insurance or are unable to pay for the mammogram. Some organizations also provide free or low-cost mammograms to eligible individuals. Women should contact their local healthcare facilities or breast health organizations to find out about available resources and financial assistance options.
How much radiation is in a mammogram?
Mammograms use low-dose X-rays to create images of the breast tissue. The amount of radiation exposure from a mammogram is considered to be very low, and the benefits of the screening in detecting breast cancer early generally outweigh any potential risks associated with radiation exposure.
Because mammography is a screening tool, it is highly regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, Mammography Quality and Standards Act and other governing organizations, like the American College of Radiology. A mammogram is safe as long as the facility you go to is certified by the regulating agencies. .
According to the American College of Radiology, the radiation dose from a mammogram is typically around 0.4 millisieverts (mSv) per breast. To put this in perspective, the average person in the United States is exposed to around 3 mSv of radiation each year from natural sources such as cosmic radiation and radon gas. Additionally, the amount of radiation exposure from a mammogram is much lower than the maximum annual occupational dose limit of 50 mSv for radiation workers.
Women who are concerned about radiation exposure from a mammogram should talk to their healthcare provider about their individual risk factors and the benefits and risks of mammogram screening. Additionally, women should make sure to inform the mammography technologist if they are pregnant or think they may be pregnant, as radiation exposure during pregnancy should be avoided whenever possible.
How long does it take to get a mammogram?
The time it takes to get a mammogram can vary depending on several factors, including the facility, the type of mammogram performed, and the individual's schedule. In general, the actual mammogram procedure typically takes around 20-30 minutes to complete. However, the total time spent at the facility may be longer if there is a wait time or if additional imaging or testing is needed.
Additionally, some facilities may require an appointment for a mammogram, which can be scheduled in advance and may have a wait time of a few days or weeks, depending on availability. Some facilities also offer walk-in or same-day appointments, which may have a shorter wait time.
Women should check with their healthcare provider or the mammography facility to find out about scheduling and wait times, as well as any special instructions or preparations needed before the appointment. It's important to arrive on time for the appointment and to wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing that is easy to remove for the procedure.
What is the difference between a regular mammogram and a 3D mammogram?
A traditional mammogram creates two-dimensional X-ray images of the breast. A newer type of mammogram called a 3D mammogram (breast tomosynthesis) creates three-dimensional images of the breast (takes multiple X-ray images of the breast from different angles). Many medical facilities offer the 3D mammogram in addition to the traditional 2D mammogram for breast cancer screening. .
The main difference between a regular mammogram and a 3D mammogram is that 3D mammography provides a more detailed image of the breast tissue. This can be especially helpful in detecting small abnormalities in the breast tissue, as well as reducing the number of false positives and unnecessary additional imaging.
In a 3D mammogram, the imaging machine moves in an arc around the breast, taking several images that are then reconstructed into a 3D image. This procedure takes a few seconds longer than a regular mammogram and exposes the patient to a slightly higher level of radiation. However, the increase in radiation exposure is considered to be very low and within safe limits.
Some facilities offer both regular mammograms and 3D mammograms, while others only offer one type of mammogram. Women should talk to their healthcare provider about their individual risk factors and the benefits and risks of each type of mammogram to determine which option is best for them.
What does a mammogram feel like?
The experience of a mammogram can vary for each person, but many women report feeling some pressure or discomfort during the procedure. The mammography technologist will position the breast between two plates, which will compress the breast tissue in order to obtain clear X-ray images. The compression may feel uncomfortable, but it only lasts for a few seconds and is necessary to obtain clear images of the breast tissue.
Some women may experience more discomfort during the procedure than others, and certain factors such as breast size and sensitivity can also impact the experience. However, it's important to remember that the discomfort is usually brief and the benefits of the mammogram in detecting breast cancer early far outweigh the temporary discomfort.
Why do I need an ultrasound after a mammogram?
An ultrasound may be recommended after a mammogram if there are any areas of concern or abnormalities found in the breast tissue that require further evaluation. An ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the breast tissue, which can help to identify any lumps or abnormalities that may not be visible on a mammogram.
An ultrasound may also be recommended for women with dense breast tissue, as dense tissue can make it more difficult to detect abnormalities on a mammogram. An ultrasound can help to provide additional information about the breast tissue and improve the accuracy of the diagnosis.
If an ultrasound is recommended after a mammogram, it is important to follow through with the recommendation in order to ensure that any potential issues are identified and treated as early as possible. Your healthcare provider or the radiologist can provide more information about the reasons for the ultrasound and what to expect during the procedure.
What does an abnormal mammogram look like?
An abnormal mammogram can look different depending on the type of abnormality present. Some common types of abnormalities that may be identified on a mammogram include:
- Calcifications: Small, white spots that appear on the mammogram, which can be caused by calcium deposits in the breast tissue. Calcifications can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
- Masses or lumps: An area of tissue that appears denser or thicker than surrounding tissue, which can indicate the presence of a lump or mass in the breast tissue. Masses can be benign or malignant.
- Asymmetry: A difference in density or appearance between the two breasts, which can indicate an abnormality in one breast that is not present in the other breast.
If an abnormality is identified on a mammogram, further testing such as an ultrasound or biopsy may be recommended in order to determine whether the abnormality is benign or malignant. It is important to remember that not all abnormalities found on a mammogram indicate the presence of breast cancer, and further testing is often needed to confirm a diagnosis.
Mammogram or ultrasound - which is more accurate?
Mammography and ultrasound are both important imaging tests used in breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and monitoring. However, each test has its own advantages and limitations.
Mammography is considered the primary screening tool for breast cancer, as it can detect small abnormalities in the breast tissue that may not be felt during a physical exam. Mammograms can detect calcifications, masses, and other changes in breast tissue that may indicate the presence of breast cancer. Mammography is also generally more accurate than ultrasound for detecting microcalcifications and small masses, and it is less operator-dependent.
Ultrasound, on the other hand, is often used as a complementary imaging tool to mammography, particularly in women with dense breast tissue or in those who have a suspicious lump or mass found on a mammogram. Ultrasound can help to distinguish between fluid-filled cysts and solid masses, and it can also help to guide biopsies for further testing.
Ultimately, the choice of imaging test will depend on individual factors such as age, breast density, personal and family history of breast cancer, and any concerning symptoms or abnormalities. Your healthcare provider or radiologist can help to determine which imaging test is best for you based on your individual situation.
How do I schedule a mammogram?
To schedule a mammogram, you can follow these steps:
- Talk to your healthcare provider: Your healthcare provider can help you determine when you should have a mammogram, based on your age, medical history, and other factors.
- Find a mammography facility: You can search for a mammography facility near you by using online tools such as the American College of Radiology's Accredited Facility Search tool or the National Cancer Institute's search tool.
- Call the facility: Once you have identified a facility, call them to schedule your appointment. Some facilities may allow you to schedule your appointment online.
- Provide your information: You will need to provide the facility with your personal information, including your name, date of birth, and contact information.
- Provide your insurance information: If you have insurance, you will need to provide your insurance information so that the facility can verify coverage and billing information.
- Schedule the appointment: Once you have provided all of the necessary information, you can schedule your mammogram appointment.
Why does the annual mammogram matter?
The annual mammogram is an important tool in breast cancer screening and early detection. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women, and early detection is critical for successful treatment and improved outcomes. Mammography can detect breast cancer at an early stage, before it has a chance to grow and spread, allowing for earlier treatment and better outcomes.
The annual mammogram is recommended for most women beginning at age 40 or earlier for those at higher risk. By having a mammogram every year, any changes in breast tissue can be detected and monitored over time, making it easier to detect any potential issues. If an abnormality is detected on a mammogram, further testing and treatment can be initiated, which may include ultrasound, MRI, or biopsy.
While mammography is not perfect and can result in false positives or false negatives, it remains an important tool in breast cancer screening. By having an annual mammogram, women can take a proactive approach to their breast health and increase their chances of detecting breast cancer at an early, more treatable stage.
What is the difference between screening and diagnostic mammogram?
Screening mammograms and diagnostic mammograms are two different types of mammograms that serve different purposes.
A screening mammogram is used to detect breast changes that could be cancerous in people who have no signs or symptoms. The goal is to detect cancer when it's small and treatment may be less invasive. Screening mammograms typically involve taking two X-ray images of each breast, which are then examined by a radiologist to look for any abnormalities. Experts and medical organizations don't agree on when to begin regular mammograms or how often the tests should be repeated. It's better to talk with your health care provider about your risk factors, your preferences, and the benefits and risks of screening. Together, you can decide what screening mammography schedule is best for you.
A diagnostic mammogram is used to investigate suspicious breast changes, such as a new breast lump, breast pain, an unusual skin appearance, nipple thickening or nipple discharge. It's also used to evaluate unexpected findings on a screening mammogram. A diagnostic mammogram includes additional mammogram images. In addition, other diagnostic tests such as ultrasound or MRI may be used in conjunction with the mammogram. 
In summary, a screening mammogram is a routine exam for women with no symptoms of breast cancer, while a diagnostic mammogram is used to investigate a specific concern or symptom related to the breast. If an abnormality is detected during a screening mammogram, a diagnostic mammogram may be recommended to provide more detailed information about the area of concern.
Digital mammography vs. 3D mammography: which is better for breast cancer screening?
Both digital mammography and 3D mammography (also known as tomosynthesis) are effective tools for breast cancer screening, but there are some differences to consider.
Digital mammography uses X-rays to create two-dimensional images of the breast, while 3D mammography creates multiple thin slices of images that can be viewed as a 3D image. This can provide more detailed images and can be especially helpful for women with dense breast tissue.
A large study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2014 found that 3D mammography detected more invasive breast cancers and reduced the number of false positives compared to digital mammography alone. However, 3D mammography is also more expensive and may not be covered by insurance for all women.
It's important to note that the best screening tool for breast cancer may vary depending on a woman's individual risk factors and breast density. Women should talk to their healthcare provider about their screening options and which option may be best for them.
Advances in medical imaging: what the future holds for breast cancer detection and treatment
Advances in medical imaging continue to improve breast cancer detection and treatment, and the future holds promise for even more advanced technologies. Here are a few examples:
- Artificial intelligence (AI): AI has the potential to greatly improve the accuracy of breast cancer screening and diagnosis. Machine learning algorithms can analyze large amounts of imaging data to identify patterns and detect subtle changes that may be indicative of cancer. This can help radiologists make more accurate diagnoses and catch breast cancer at an earlier stage.
AI can provide objective and effective information to doctors and reduce the workload of doctors and the rates of missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. At present, the CAD system for breast cancer screening has been widely studied. In mammography, ultrasound, MRI and other imaging examinations, these systems can identify and segment breast lesions, extract features, classify them, estimate BD and the risk of breast cancer, and evaluate treatment effect and prognosis. 
- Molecular breast imaging: MBI targets cancer in a particular location of the body using a special gamma camera and a radioactive tracer. The "functional imaging" capability of MBI technology, which can display what's happening in the tissue rather than just taking a single image of your breast tissue, has earned it the name. For instance, compared to tissues where the cells are less active, breast tissue formed out of cells that rapidly grow and divide, such as cancer cells, will appear brighter in an image.
- Optical imaging: Optical imaging uses light to create images of tissue. It has the potential to improve breast cancer diagnosis by providing real-time images of breast tissue during a biopsy, reducing the need for repeat biopsies and improving the accuracy of the procedure.
- Multimodality imaging: Combining multiple imaging techniques, such as mammography, ultrasound, and MRI, can improve the accuracy of breast cancer diagnosis and reduce false positives and false negatives.
In addition to these advanced imaging technologies, there are also new treatments being developed that use imaging to deliver targeted therapy directly to cancer cells. For example, photoacoustic imaging can be used to target cancer cells with a laser, while magnetic nanoparticles can be used to deliver chemotherapy directly to the tumor.
Overall, the future of breast cancer detection and treatment looks promising, with advanced imaging technologies and targeted therapies that can improve outcomes and reduce the need for invasive procedures.
Beyond mammograms: other types of medical imaging for breast cancer diagnosis
In addition to mammograms, there are several other types of medical imaging that may be used for breast cancer diagnosis, including:
- Breast MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create detailed images of the breast. It is particularly useful for women who have dense breast tissue, as well as those who have a high risk of developing breast cancer. MRI can detect small tumors and evaluate the extent of the disease.
- Breast ultrasound: Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the breast tissue. It is often used to evaluate suspicious areas that were detected on a mammogram or to guide a biopsy. Ultrasound can also be used to detect cysts, which are typically not cancerous.
- Molecular breast imaging: Also known as breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), this imaging technique uses a small amount of radioactive material to create images of the breast. It is used to evaluate suspicious areas that were detected on a mammogram or to evaluate women with dense breast tissue. BSGI can detect small tumors that may be missed on other imaging tests.
- Positron emission tomography (PET) scan: PET scans use a small amount of radioactive material to detect cancer cells in the body. They may be used to evaluate whether breast cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
These imaging tests may be used alone or in combination with mammography to evaluate suspicious areas in the breast or to monitor the progression of breast cancer. The type of imaging test used will depend on several factors, including the woman's age, medical history, and breast density.
The latest advances in mammography technology
Ongoing studies are looking at ways to enhance current breast cancer screening options. Technological advances in imaging are creating new opportunities for improvements in both screening and early detection.
1. One technology advance is 3-D mammography, also called breast tomosynthesis. This procedure takes images from different angles around the breast and builds them into a 3-D-like image. Although this technology is increasingly available in the clinic, it isn’t known whether it is better than standard 2-D mammography, for detecting cancer at a less advanced stage. 
2. Contrast-Enhanced Mammography (CEM): This technique involves injecting a contrast agent into the bloodstream prior to the mammogram. The contrast agent highlights blood vessels and can help detect small tumors that may be missed on a traditional mammogram.
3. Automated Breast Ultrasound (ABUS)ABUS uses ultrasound technology to scan the entire breast and detect small tumors that may have been missed on a mammogram. It is particularly useful for women with dense breast tissue, which can make it more difficult to detect tumors on a mammogram.
4. Digital Breast Biopsy Systems These systems use digital imaging technology to guide a needle to the site of a suspicious lesion in the breast for a biopsy. This allows for more precise targeting of the biopsy site and can improve the accuracy of the procedure.
Overall, these advances in mammography technology have improved the accuracy and efficiency of breast cancer screening, allowing for earlier detection and more effective treatment.
 - https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diagnostics/4877-mammogram
 - https://healthmatters.nyp.org/10-things-to-know-before-your-next-mammogram/
 - https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/breast-cancer/6-mammogram-myths
 - https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/mammogram/about/pac-20384806
 - https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/mammogram/about/pac-20384806
 - https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/research
 - https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2021.600557/full
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